G-code explained
G-code is the generic name for plain-text language that CNC machines can understand. Manufacturers all around the world use CNC programming to control a machine to produce parts, it tells the machine where – and how – to move. Although G-code is supposed to be a universal standard, there are small differences from one machine to another. It really comes down to the capabilities of each machine. For example, the Maslow cnc control board will execute a M106 command as a Laser ON activating a pin on the board to turn the laser ON, while the same M106 command in a Marlin control board will turn the fan at full speed.
When in doubt, always refer to the documentation of your CNC machine.
Here is an example of a G-code file that will cut a rectangle.
%
G20
G00 Z0.5
G00 X0 Y0
G01 Z-1 F50 
G01 X0 Y20 F50 
G01 Y20 X30 
G01 X30 Y0 
G01 X0 Y0
G00 Z0.5 F70
M30
%

Let's see how it works
Now let's break it down line by line.
List of commands
While the commands are called G code, G is not the only letter used. Different letters dictate how the machine moves and numbers set the parameters. 

N             The N value gives the line number.
G             G commands often tell the control what kind of motion is wanted
X, Y, Z      These values indicate the position of the tool in three dimensions — X for horizontal, Y for vertical and Z for depth.
F              F relates to how quickly the machine feeds the piece.
S              S tells the machine the rpm of the spindle.
T              The T tells the machine which tool to use.
M             M values give miscellaneous functions or machine functions, telling the device how to act by giving on and off directions.
I, J           These values indicate the incremental center of any arcs the machine makes.
R              R gives the radius of arcs made by the machine.
A              A values direct the tool around the x-axis.
B             The number with B shows the rotational value around the y-axis. C             An auxiliary axis that rotates around the z-axis gets its positional value from the C value.
D             This number shows how much the system offsets the tool diameter.
L              L gives the system a value to indicate repeating operations and how many times they need to loop.
P             The program jumps in time or a delayed time with the P command.
CODE   CATEGORY                               FUNCTION

G00       Motion                   Move in a straight line at rapids speed.
G01       Motion                   Move in a straight line at last speed commanded by a (F)eedrate
G02       Motion                   Clockwise circular arc at (F)eedrate
G03       Motion                   Counter-clockwise circular arc at (F)eedrate
G04       Motion                   Dwell: Stop for a specified time. P for milliseconds X for seconds
G05       Motion                   Spline Definition
G06       Motion                   Spline Interpolation
G08       Motion                   Radius Mode
G09       Motion                   Exact stop check
G10       Compensation       Programmable parameter input
G14       Coordinate            Polar coordinate programming, absolute
G15       Coordinate            Polar coordinate programming, relative
G16       Coordinate            Definition of pole point in polar system
G17       Coordinate            Select X-Y plane selection
G18       Coordinate            Select X-Z plane selection
G19       Coordinate            Select Y-Z plane selection
G20       Coordinate            Program coordinates are inches
G21       Coordinate            Program coordinates are mm
G27       Motion                  Reference point return check
G28       Motion                  Return to home position
G29       Motion                  Return from the reference position
G30       Motion                  Return to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th reference point
G32       Canned                 Single-point threading, longhand style.
G40       Compensation       Tool cutter compensation OFF
G41       Compensation       Tool cutter compensation left
G42       Compensation       Tool cutter compensation right
G43       Compensation       Apply tool length compensation (plus)
G44       Compensation       Apply tool length compensation (minus)
G49       Compensation       Tool length compensation cancel
G50       Compensation       Reset all scale factors to 1.0
G51       Compensation       Turn on scale factors
G52       Coordinate            Local workshift for all coordinate systems: add XYZ offsets
G53       Coordinate            Machine coordinate system (cancel work offsets)
G54       Coordinate            Work coordinate system (1st Workpiece)
G55       Coordinate            Work coordinate system (2nd Workpiece)
G56       Coordinate            Work coordinate system (3rd Workpiece)
G57       Coordinate            Work coordinate system (4th Workpiece)
G58       Coordinate            Work coordinate system (5th Workpiece)
G59       Coordinate            Work coordinate system (6th Workpiece)
G61       Other                    Exact stop check mode
G62       Other                    Automatic corner override
G63       Other                    Tapping mode
G64       Other                    Best speed path
G65       Other                    Custom macro simple call
G68       Coordinate            Coordinate System Rotation
G69       Coordinate            Cancel Coordinate System Rotation
G73       Canned                 High speed drilling cycle (small retract)
G74       Canned                 Left hand tapping cycle
G76       Canned                 Fine boring cyle
G80       Canned                 Cancel canned cycle
G81       Canned                 Simple drilling cycle
G82       Canned                 Drilling cycle with dwell (counterboring)
G83       Canned                 Peck drilling cycle (full retract)
G84       Canned                 Tapping cycle
G85       Canned                 Boring canned cycle, no dwell, feed out
G86       Canned                 Boring canned cycle, spindle stop, rapid out
G87       Canned                 Back boring canned cycle
G88       Canned                 Boring canned cycle, spindle stop, manual out
G89       Canned                 Boring canned cycle, dwell, feed out
G90       Coordinate            Absolute programming of XYZ (type B and C systems)
G90.1    Coordinate            Absolute programming IJK (type B and C systems)
G91       Coordinate            Incremental programming of XYZ (type B and C systems)
G91.1    Coordinate            Incremental programming IJK (type B and C systems)
G92       Coordinate            Offset coordinate system and save parameters
G92.1    Coordinate            Cancel offset and zero parameters
G92.2    Coordinate            Cancel offset and retain parameters
G92.3    Coordinate            Offset coordinate system with saved parameters
G94       Motion                  Units per minute feed mode. Units in inches or mm.
G95       Motion                  Units per revolution feed mode. Units in inches or mm.
G96       Motion                  Constant surface speed
G97       Motion                  Cancel constant surface speed
G98       Canned                 Return to initial Z plane after canned cycle
G99       Canned                 Return to initial R plane after canned cycle

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MASLOW CNC M-codes
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M0       Program Pause / Unconditional Halt / Stop
M1       Optional Pause / Halt / Sleep
M2       End of Program
M3       Spindle ON
M4       Spindle ON
M5       Spindle OFF
M6       Tool change
M30     Program End with return to program top
M106   Laser ON
M107   Laser OFF
If you have any questions about specific Maslow CNC controller commands, don't hesitate to contact us